Name of Funding Organization/Sponsor: German Federal Foreign Office (through the German Committee for Disaster Reduction)
Country and Location: Makati City, Metro Manila, Philippines
Start Date: November 2007
Completion Date: February 2010
Related Reports and Documents:
- Risk-Sensitive Urban Redevelopment Planning Project of Barangay Rizal, Makati City, Philippines (Volumes 1 and 2)
The Barangay Rizal Risk-Sensitive Urban Redevelopment Planning Project was undertaken by the EMI in partnership with the Makati City Government, the community representatives of Barangay Rizal, and the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS). It involved the urban redevelopment planning of selected zones in the Barangay to modify and lessen the physical, social, and economic vulnerability of the community to earthquake-related hazards, while at the same time improving the livelihood and living conditions of the residents.
Barangay Rizal is one of the 33 barangays of Makati City. It was chosen as pilot area for the project because of the negative combination of its susceptibility to earthquake hazards and its socio-economic conditions. Barangay Rizal sits on an active fault, which makes it highly vulnerable to earthquake hazards such as surface rupture, ground shaking, land subsidence, liquefaction and fire following earthquake. The West Valley Fault runs along the northwestern portion of the barangay.
According to the Metro Manila Earthquake Impact Reduction Study (MMEIRS 2004), rupture of the fault can cause a magnitude 7.2 earthquake, which has the potential to cause severe damage to approximately 40% of the total number of residential buildings within Metro Manila, with an estimated 34,000 deaths and 114,000 injuries. Certain portions of the barangay are expected to suffer serious damage due to ground rupture. A rapid visual screening of buildings for seismic vulnerability revealed that at least 1 out of every 3 of the inspected structures may not withstand a seismic event of magnitude 7.2 or higher.2 Buildings along the fault trace are particularly vulnerable. Factors that contribute to vulnerability of structures include old age, weak structural systems, irregularities in building form, and poor construction with substandard materials.
Its physical make-up of congested streets and lack of open spaces make emergency access and evacuation very difficult. The presence of unsafe buildings and structures and narrow and obstructed roads are the main contributors to the physical risk of the area. There are very few open spaces which can serve as space for evacuation, temporary shelter, and storage for debris in case of an earthquake or other disaster. Debris could block the roadways, fire could spread, and there could be thousands of people displaced from their homes for months. Barangay Rizal is also subject to frequent flooding and other hazards such as fires.
The physical risk of the area is exacerbated by the area’s socio-economic vulnerability. The population is generally low-income with a high level of unemployed. Results of socio-economic surveys conducted in the area reveal that 16% of households have a combined monthly income that falls below the poverty line. More than half (54%) of the community’s productive population are unemployed. About 45% are employed, but only 28% have permanent employment, while the rest either have contractual work or are self employed. The inadequate economic capacity and the presence of highly vulnerable households contribute to the socio-economic vulnerability of the area. Moreover, there is inadequate capacity in terms of emergency preparedness and response.
In order to address the physical risk and socio-economic vulnerability of Barangay Rizal, a risk-sensitive urban redevelopment framework (RSURF) was developed, highlighting sustainability, livability and disaster risk/vulnerability as the core considerations for the redevelopment planning of the pilot site. The planning process used a highly participatory approach. A single integrated Project Implementation Team was put together that included technical specialists and officials from Barangay Rizal, Makati City and PHIVOLCS. Stakeholders were involved in all stages of the planning process.
The evaluation of physical, social and economic vulnerability to the households of Barangay Rizal was key to the redevelopment project. How each of the residents is affected by these criteria was determined from the physical risk survey. The socio-economic surveys provided the profile for the affected residents, which was crucial to the compensation scheme that will need to be put in place for the re-development plan.
The physical vulnerability of individual structures was done through a “Rapid Visual Screening for Seismic Vulnerability of Buildings.” This was carried out by means of a “sidewalk survey” where trained engineers from Makati City filled up a data collection form for each structure based on visual observation supplemented by data obtained from the City’s engineering office. Special attention was also paid to evaluate liquefaction potential. A total of 1,150 structures covering 44 blocks in Zones 7, 8, 9, and 10 were surveyed. This constitutes around 94 percent of the total number of structures (1,229) in the planning area. A special algorithm was designed to classify the structures into four risk levels: Very High, High, Moderate and Low.
Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (VCA) was undertaken to determine the existing conditions that predispose the community to potential socio-economic losses and damages in the event of a disaster. The VCA assessment specifically sought to identify individuals and households who will be adversely affected by a disaster event, and also identify and assess the capacity of households and the community to respond and recover from a disaster event.
The results of the surveys were shared with the community to raise awareness and for educating the community in risk-sensitive re-development.
A series of planning workshops was also undertaken to engage the representatives of the community in the redevelopment process. First, they were oriented on the hazards and their vulnerabilities. Then they were asked to formulate their vision for the community, identify the major problems, and suggest solutions. Then, they participated in the identification of programs, projects and activities, and the validation and acceptance of findings and proposed redevelopment plan. This helped ensure that the plan reflected all stakeholders’ interests, needs and aspirations. All findings and outputs from the projects were shared and validated with the community representatives. To create ownership in the redevelopment plan, the need for a continuous information and education campaign was emphasized. To further develop trust, members of the community were engaged in the data collection process. Training for disaster preparedness and skills training for livelihood improvement were also undertaken.
The resulting redevelopment plan was designed for a 10-year timeframe with short term, medium term and long term actions. The priorities in the action planning were driven by the input from the stakeholders and were driven mainly by ensuring community acceptance and developing community trust and support. The redevelopment plan proposes the following interventions:
- Fault zone park. An easement zone along the fault needs to be established with access roads on both sides. The access roads will provide the opportunity to redesign new utilities and fire protection systems that considers appropriate earthquake motion. Drainage systems will be incorporated to reduce the risk of flooding. Further, the easement can be used as a park, open market, recreational area, playground, parking space and a community garden. Residents within the fault zone will need to be relocated.
- Housing program and pocket open space. New medium density social housing will be provided for the households that will be affected by the redevelopment. The re-housing program should be based on the premise that all relocation will be on-site, i.e., within the Barangay itself.
- Retrofit program for high risk structures. A voluntary retrofit program is suggested for structures classified as “High Risk.” However, prior to retrofit, more competent structural analysis needs to be undertaken on these structures to ascertain their level of risk considering their construction characteristics and location.
- Aside from the abovementioned interventions which directly address physical risk, the following measures are proposed:
- Compensation scheme. For those who will be displaced because their existing dwellings are considered to be at very high risk, a compensation scheme that is based on pertinent legal provisions and regulations should be developed.
- Incentive program. The voluntary seismic retrofit program needs to be supported by an incentive scheme to favor the engagement of private owners to participate. The incentive scheme can be in various forms such as undertaking all the studies free of charge, providing soft low interest loans, allowing variations in zoning for mixed uses, and others.
- Raising Income Level and Improving Economic Conditions. Measures to raise the income and uplift the economic conditions of to reduce the social and economic vulnerabilities include (i) development of neighbourhood commercial centers; (ii) development of educational facilities; (iii) formulation of strategic livelihoods and skills enhancement program and (iv) preparation of business and entrepreneurship support program which includes improving people’s access to affordable financing and market linkaging.
Other proposed interventions include: the establishment of development controls and density controls, development of an information education communication (IEC) campaign to improve social acceptability of the project, improvement of circulation network and emergency access, traffic management, open space development, disaster preparedness and emergency management and upgrading of critical infrastructure.
Project Key Accomplishments
- First project of its kind in the Philippines to address the redevelopment of a built-up urban area, with an emphasis on the reduction of risk
Contribution to Urban DRR
- Pilot application demonstrating how redevelopment planning can be a powerful tool to lessen the physical, social, and economic vulnerability of high-risk communities
EMI Personnel Involved
- Earthquake Engineer and Disaster Risk Management Expert - Dr. Fouad Bendimerad
- Emergency Management Specialist - Nadia Pulmano
- Task Leader – Dr. Marqueza Reyes
- Task Leader – Dr. Nathaniel von Einsiedel
- Legal and Institutional Planner - Atty. Asteya Santiago
- Legal and Institutional Planner - Atty. Saviniano Perez
- Land Use Planner and Disaster Risk Reduction Expert - Dr. Marqueza Reyes
- Land Use Planner and Physical Vulnerability Expert - Dr. Raza Tabassam
- Land Use Planner and Knowledge Management Specialist - Julie Catherine Paran
- Social Mobilization Specialist - Jerome Zayas
- Socio-Economic Planner - Marino Deocariza
- Transportation Planner - Dr. Noriel Tiglao
- GIS Specialist, Leigh Lingad
- GIS Specialist, Sergio Abad
- GIS Specialist - Leigh Lingad
- Knowledge Management - Julie Catherine Paran
- Knowledge Management - Winifredo Dagli
- Knowledge Management - Jerome Cruz
- Project Coordination and Knowledge Management - Jose Mari Daclan
- Knowledge Management - Kristoffer Berse
- Land Use Planner - Amillah Rodil
- Project Assistant - Irwin Gabriel Lopez
- Project Assistant - Dominic Dizon
- Research Intern - Anna Leah Baliton